A Pioneer Hospital in India for Kidney Stone Treatment by RIRS

FAQ About Kidney Stones

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Answering Clinical Questions Improves Patient Safety

A Kidney stone is a mass formed inside the Kidney and is composed of substances from the urine. It is a mixture of crystalline & non – crystalline material.

It could be:-

  • Calcium oxalate:- Common ( 60 % )
  • Calcium phosphate & mixed ( 20% )
  • Uric Acid ( 5 to 10 % )
  • Struvite ( 5 to 10 % )
  • Cystine (1 to 3 % )
  • Rare 3 %

Those who take a low fluid intake.

Those people who live in hot climates. This is directly related to dehydration & crystallisation in the urine.

Those who excrete a high amount of calcium, oxalate, uric acid & low quantities of citrate & magnesium in urine.

hose who consume a high intake of animal protein which increases urinary calcium, oxalate & uric acid excretion.

Adult men are more prone to form kidney stones (Protective effect of estrogen against stone formation in women).

Hyperparathyroidism, Renal tubular acidosis, Gout & Cystinuria.


The recurrence rate is 50 % in 10 years

Excruciating pain in the abdomen, back & groin, pain may radiate to the genitalia on the side which bears the stone. Pain is colicky in nature & may be associated with nausea & vomiting.
  • Blood in urine
  • Difficulty in passing urine
  • Kidney stones may be silent

Spontaneous passage (Approx. 80% of stones pass out spontaneously) depending upon the size of stones. Less than 5mm stones have a higher incidence of spontaneous passage. As the size of stone increases the chances of spontaneous passage decrease.

Non-Surgical or expectant treatment for small stones ( Plenty of fluids & medicines which can facilitate spontaneous passage of small stones ) Surgical Treatment - Kidney Stones Reoccur

There are three main procedures available today

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

Flexible & Semirigid Ureteroscopy ( RIRS – Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery )