KIDNEY AND URETERAL STONES
Stone disease is among the most painful and prevalent urological
Millions of kidney stone cases are diagnosed each year.
Majority of kidney stones pass out of the body spontaneously without any
Following information may help understand the kidney stone disease
Normally, urine contains many dissolved substances.
At times, some material many become concentrated in the urine and form
These crystals can grow and unite to form a stone.
Stone formed in the kidneys are called kidney stones.
Ureteral stone is a kidney stone that has left the kidney and moved down
to the ureter.
TYPES OF STONES
1. The most common stones are calcium oxalate kidney stones followed by
calcium phosphate kidney stones.
2. A less common type of stone is caused by infection in the urinary
tract. This type of kidney stone is called a struvite or infection stone.
3. Much less common are the pure uric acid kidney stones.
4. Much rarer is the hereditary type of kidney stones called cystine
stones and even more rare are those linked to other hereditary disorders.
5. There are number of other stones also which form less than 5% of total
The urinary tract, or system, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder,
and urethera. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs below the ribs in the
back. They are responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
by removing extra water and wastes from the blood and converting it to
urine. Urine is carried by ureters, from the kidneys to the bladder.
What are the risk factors for forming kidney stones?
Stone disease is more common in males than females. The male-female
ratio is approximately 2:1. The exact cause of kidney stone formation is
not known, but there are number of possible factors and connections
leading to kidney stone formation.
1. Family history of kidney stones disease.
2. Urinary tract infection can lead to kidney stone disease.
3. High intake of Non vegetarian food may lead to kidney stone disease.
4. High salt intake may have higher incidence of kidney stone formation.
5. Low water intake may be associated with high incidence of kidney stone
6. Decreased amount of urinary citrate also can increase the kidney stone
7. Intake of high oxalate diet such as green leafy vegetables, nuts and
chocolate help in formation of kidney stones.
8. Certain diseases like Crohns disease, short bowel syndrome etc.
increase the incidence of kidney stone formation.
9. Secondary stones may form in patients with obstruction to urinary
passage like in prostate enlargement or uretheral stricture etc.
10. Kidney stones are also linked to hyperparathyroidism, an endocrine
disorder that result in more calcium in the urine.
11. Rare hereditary disorders such as
a) Cystinuria can lead to formation of cystine stones
in the kidneys.
b) Primary hyperoxaluria can also lead to kidney stone
12. Certain conditions like
a) Hypercalciuria of different types can also lead to
increased incidence of kidney stone formation.
b) Hyperuricosuria is also associated with increased
incidence of kidney stone formation.
Majority of kidney stones (60-80%) pass out spontaneously with symptoms or
The usual symptoms are: -
1. Severe pain in the back radiating to the front
4. Difficulty in passing urine
5. Blood in urine
6. Dull ache often confused with the muscular pain.
7. If the stone is in the lower end of ureter, patient may feel frequent
sensation of incomplete urination.
8. Fever & chills, if there is associated infection.
Occasionally kidney stones may be painless or silent stones
Silent stones are dangerous and may cause irreversible damage to the
How to diagnose kidney stone?
Plain X-Ray KUB: -
Provides good information about kidney stones
Ultrasound Examination: -
Operator oriented, easy & quick
Intravenous Pyelogram: -
Time consuming, requires contrast and may
NCCT-KUB ( Non Contrast CT)
No preparation is required
In addition to this, there are number of Blood & Urine tests which are
24 hours urine may be required for estimating the daily output of
urinary calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, sodium, creatinine etc.
Contact for kidney stone treatment in india and in Delhi NCR region .